The past success of Big Science makes it appear to young scientists that they need to necessarily do expensive science in order to be successful. Part of this belief does come from the era of big accelerator physics and high profile molecular biology as noted above. But we don’t have to see far to realize that this belief is flawed and it has been demolished by physicists themselves; two years ago, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to scientists who produced graphene by peeling off layers of it from graphite using good old scotch tape. How many millions of dollars did it take to do this experiment?
— Ashutosh Jogalekar in Scientific American, “In Praise of Small (and Cheap) Science“